Journal articles and book chapters are not interchangeable. You can’t (or at least shouldn’t) take your published article and insert the text into your book. The format, tone, language, structure, and reference section often differ from a peer-reviewed one-time publication to a chapter, which needs to fit into the overall book. So how do you make this switch?
Before you do any revising, you need to get permission from the journal editor to have the article appear in your book. Send a polite email, asking for permission and explaining the outlet in which the article will appear (your book). Some publishers grant individual authors the rights to their work. Others don’t. Always make the request–as soon as you know you’d like to reprint the article. At the same time, check with your book editor about the reprint, at least giving a “heads up.” If you are writing your manuscript and don’t yet have an editor, you will disclose this reprint in your book proposal. It is totally fine to include published articles-turned chapters in your book. It actually makes sense. If you are an expert on this topic and have published articles, your book can be (at least partially) a culmination of your work. Do note that editors typically want the majority of a book to be new content, but that still leaves space for revised reprints.
Assuming you’ve gotten written permission for the reprint, you can move forward. It’s tempting to just drop the article in, call it a chapter, and be done. Not a smart move though. You are (hopefully) including your article as a chapter because it adds to the content of your book. You want this addition to be seamless and not stand out as a journal article floating in the middle of a book.
Journal articles and academic book chapters do share similarities. They are typically both comprised of secondary and primary sources, woven together to create a narrative driven by a purpose and set of objectives. The differences stop there. Book chapters don’t usually have the rigid, standard sections of a journal article, especially in the middle of a single-authored book (you may find more “journal-article” elements in a chapter for an anthology, as each contributor spells out theory and method for their own projects).
Step-by-step Instructions for Making Your Article a Chapter
Identify the reasons for including the article-as-chapter in your book. What does it add? How does it fit?
Read your journal article with fresh eyes, looking at your work as it will fit in your book. Note spots in the chapter that need to be updated or revised to match the rest of your book, especially if it’s been a few years since the article’s publication.
Remove the theory and method sections, unless they are unique to this chapter. You likely already covered these areas in your introduction.
Conduct additional research needed for the chapter (updating the literature review, analyzing material that’s been created since your article research timeline ended, etc.). For example, for me to transform articles to chapters, I often have to add a sample of media content that has been created since the articles were published.
Revise the chapter into a chapter format. (Yes, step 5 is the big one). Adopt a slightly more conversational tone in your writing. Define concepts for readers outside of your discipline. Add headers, topic sentences, and other language that creates a flow for your chapter that parallels the other chapters in your book. Most book chapters don’t have a RESULTS or FINDINGS section. Rephrase your primary analysis to thematic headings.
Revise the references to match your book’s citation format. In my discipline, journals typically use APA, while books use Chicago Style.
Read the chapter as it fits into the other chapters. Does it flow or stand out? Revise as needed so that it no longer reads as an article turned chapter, but just a chapter. Have you adhered to the press guidelines?
Chapters need to tell a story within the book’s overarching purpose. Only include journal articles if you would have wanted the topics covered in your book anyway. By revising your article into a chapter format, you increase its likelihood of success with editors and reviewers and improve the overall experience for your future readers.
Your first chapter might feel like a throwaway, perhaps written as a sample to accompany your book proposal in hopes of a contract. However, the intro matters. It gives readers their first impressions of you as a writer and your book as a whole. That may sound a little daunting, but it doesn’t have to be. Like most forms of writing, a good nonfiction introduction follows a set of (ironically) unwritten rules.
Failing to follow the “introduction” road map. At least for academic books, most intros contain the same elements: An “intro” to the intro, statement of purpose, justification, brief background and/or literature review, relevant theories that guide the research, a description of the method/approach and an overview of the chapters in the book. Choosing to skip one of these critical components will likely stall you up in the revising process or if you make it through, leave your readers wondering why you omitted an important part of the set up.
Using too much jargon. This is an error I see mostly in student work and early-career scholars, who are eager to use the vocab of the discipline and to “sound smart.” Convey your ideas in plain language, saving the jargon for spots that make sense (i.e. in your theory section). Even then, it should be defined and connected to your overarching topic.
Lacking a sense of purpose or direction. Your chapter and book need to have a clearly-stated purpose and flow. I recommend describing your book to a relative, a scholar outside of your discipline, and someone in your field. Talking through your book’s main objective with various audiences will give you a better idea of what you are doing and why, which you can then communicate in the first chapter.
Giving too much away. I realize that you’re writing nonfiction, not a murder mystery. That said, avoid saying too much about what you’ve found in your primary research right away in the introduction. You can outline what you will do, but shouldn’t have conclusions in chapter 1.
Providing too much background/literature/theory. The introduction is an introduction. If any of these sections becomes too lengthy (more than a page or two), they will take away from the chapter’s purpose of setting up the book. Consider shortening your sections and incorporating them into later chapters of the book. For example, a historical background could be split up by time period and relocated to other chapters that fit chronologically.
Not providing enough background/literature/theory. Assume your reader is intelligent, but may not have the same expertise as you in the material (because you are writing the book). Giving short definitions, brief explanations, and a few sentences of background can be immensely helpful. Unless you are writing a technical manual, you want people in outside areas to enjoy your book. Write and define in such a way that your work can be understood by readers in other countries/cultures and by future generations. References that seem to be obvious now lose their familiarity over time.
Including material that should be in the preface or acknowledgements. Chapter 1 is for introducing the book. It is not the place for an origin story of your book’s idea, what television shows you enjoyed as a child, or praise for your favorite barista for refilling your coffee. Put backstories and other personal info that make your book more interesting in the preface. Thank everyone in a separate “acknowledgements” page. These elements are important, but don’t belong in the intro. Note: I’m not talking about reflexivity for analysis. Identifying your intersectional positions in your theory/method section is different than reminiscing about Auntie Annie’s rice pudding (so delicious, but not intro material).
Floating down the river of tangents. Every word and sentence should serve a purpose. As you edit your chapter, look (and fix) concepts that stray from the objective of a paragraph and section.
Not writing enough or writing too much. Besides failing to adequately address the sections of the book, a short intro doesn’t properly set the foundation for the book. It can be a little shorter than a typical chapter, but not too far off. Conversely, a lengthy intro is not really an intro. Think about splitting part of it off into a new chapter.
Skipping the intro. Don’t jump right into the main topic without first telling us what it is about and other key factors for really getting the book. Do what you want with fiction, but nonfiction needs the purpose, justification, and other relevant information laid out.
If this list made you panic about your own in-progress book, you can always revise the introduction. In fact, I recommend it. With my own books, I write the intro first and then return to it much later in the process. I typically wind up changing quite a bit, as I have a better grasp of my project after I’ve written a few chapters. None of my published single-authored books have their original beginnings. You can always revise, but only if you’ve written something in the first place.
I will state the obvious and say that it’s really hard to focus right now. As I wrote about in “Why I Bought a Boat: Juggling Gender Roles in the Pandemic,” women have been particularly affected by the lack of childcare and added crisis-school responsibilities. The outcome has been significant. In academia, while male professors have been able to increase their journal article submission, women’s research output has steeply declined, covered in this article in The Guardian. Adding to this pressure, of course, is the stress of the pandemic, racial injustice, the economy. . . . I could go on and on, but I won’t.
My focus here is to help you to move past the distractions to get a little bit done right now. That’s right. A little bit, not 15 manuscripts, but small projects accomplished that can add up. I will frame this around working while having children at home as the primary sources of interruption, but you can also apply my tips to your own situations.
Feed the meter. I love Dr. Harvey Karp’s concept that giving your kids a little attention before moving on to an independent activity can greatly improve behavior. I employed this approach when my girls were little (focused time and then a little independent play while I did something else) and I definitely still use it. I personally get more done if I focus on my kids first, break away for awhile, and then have planned segments of attention throughout the day. In fact, this has been my strategy throughout the last few months. We eat breakfast together and outline the day, then a balance of independent play/crisis school/chores and check-in moments from me. It doesn’t always work, but I am definitely more successful and my children seem happier if I focus on them first before attempting to work.
Make your kids wait. If you’ve fed the meter and your children are still interrupting you, it’s fine to put their non-emergency needs on hold. Even little kids can wait a minute for you to finish something, as long as they don’t need to use the potty. We’ve struggled with the barrage of interrupting Mom (me) during the quarantine. I’ve found that it helps to sketch out the day’s plan on a portable whiteboard, laying out the schedule and required tasks to get electronics. Sometimes I give my kids an “distracto” pass, allowing for one interruption. I also have a “snack guide.” It’s low-tech and nerdy, but cuts down on the “I want a snaaaaaaack” whining.
Ration out TV and electronics. Tablets, games, and Disney+ can be wonderful tools in helping you get some work done. I caution against overusing them to boost your own productivity for a few reasons though. First, it’s (obviously) not healthy for kids to be consuming media all the time. Secondly, too much TV/devices can actually lead to more interruptions. When kids get too used to being entertained, they can have a harder time with free play. I’m not saying NO TV (totally not, no way, not happening), but save the coveted electronics for special times of the day (i.e. when you need to focus).
Value your writing time (and make others value it too). Writing should not be perceived as an afterthought, as the first activity that gets cut out during busy times. If you are a professional writer, you need to write. If you are an academic, you need to write. If you are a person who just likes to write, you need to write. Have an outline of your writing tasks for the session, day, week, and month. Set specific times in which your partner is fully on kid duty and no one is allowed to interrupt you (lock the door if you must). Writing time should not be viewed in the same category as online surfing or social media posting. Yet don’t limit your writing to your sacred sessions. Get the small, low-focus items (see below) done during distracting parts of the day, freeing up your blocks for high-focus tasks. If you don’t make writing a priority for yourself than others won’t either.
Don’t wait for a perfect “day” of writing. I’ve never understood the need to write only in lengthy blocks. Or maybe I’ve just never had this luxury. Carving out short sessions regularly can be more productive than attempting to get one full day of writing. I also recommend using moments throughout the day to handle low-focus tasks (see below). Here’s why: the more you write, the easier it is to write. You spend less time getting back into a project and feel less pressure to create your masterpiece. If you can miraculously get a day to write, savor it, but don’t wait for it.
Divide your tasks by level of focus. As you plan out writing objectives for your current project, identify which components are high-focus and which ones are low-focus. Save the high-focus tasks for parts of your day that you are least likely to get interrupted, when you can shut the door, put on the noise-cancelling headphones, and have your partner handle whatever minor/major crises emerge. Getting up early to write may also help you carve out some high-focus time. Some aspects of writing don’t take a lot of brain power. Your low-mid focus items can be addressed during potential interruption times. Try to use these moments to format a source, save a journal article, or email an editor. The trick to productivity right now is to finish low-focus items when you can so that your precious minutes of high-focus time can be used to tackle tough writing tasks.
Get your social media distractions out and then stop. News and social media lure us in right now. We feel a need to be part of the world and know what’s going on. Indulge this need for a little bit. Even better, do it at a time in which you wouldn’t be writing, but also doesn’t cut into interacting time with your kids. Use some of your waiting time to do this: waiting for kids to brush teeth, use the bathroom, come downstairs, for a pot to boil or something to heat up in the microwave. If you must start a writing session with a social media looksie, then limit your time online before starting the project.
Acknowledge that there will be “off” days. This is a tough time. Not every day will be a productive one. Sometimes the kids need more engagement. Sometimes the world is just too troubling for anyone to focus. Sometimes the dog rolls in poop and needs an emergency bath. It’s okay if you didn’t make today’s goal. Reevaluate (perhaps with a dish of ice cream) for tomorrow. What could make the day better/smoother/happier? I’ve found that planned outings can boost our overall moods and I actually get more done when we return home.
Feed your own meter. It’s hard to focus if you are not getting enough sleep, food, water, exercise, or mental breaks. It might seem counterproductive to give up some writing time for walk, shower, or early bedtime. Nope. Taking care of yourself will help you think more clearly and be more efficient. Plus you might get inspired during non-writing times. How can we fit it all in? Eat and exercise with the kids, which gives you multiple check marks. Or work out alone for the head-space–whatever works for you. Establishing healthy habits will aid you in the long-run.
Here’s the deal. If you have kids, dogs, a partner, elderly relative, etc. at home, you will get interrupted and face countless distractions. I fully get this and am living it. While I was writing this post, my dog tried to eat a marker and both kids woke up, needing my attention. The key to getting things done is to set low expectations, have a plan, and maximize the teeny bits of time you do have.
Writing a book or creating a new manuscript can feel incredibly daunting, particularly in the early stages. You’ve done your research. You know you want to tackle this project. You feel intrinsically and extrinsically inspired to do so. You made your schedule. I’m not going to lie. Sometimes it’s still hard to get the ball rolling, especially in this world of distractions.
Numerous books have been written on improving productivity. Setting a timer, turning off your internet, aiming for a certain number of words, paragraphs or pages, and making an appointment with yourself to write are all good tips. I regularly use all of these tricks, depending on my current task.
However, they don’t say much about how to approach your writing to maximize your efforts. Adding structure helps navigate the blocks and smooths out the process. In other words, motivating yourself to write isn’t always about words met or “butt in chair.” It’s also about developing a writing session that feels and is productive.
Before you sit down to write, think about what type of writing you will do. I don’t mean genres, but conceptually, where are you in your process? Identifying which type of session will set you up for success. Broadly speaking, I have 4 types of writing sessions that move from a macro look at my project to the nitty-gritty details and then back to the macro level (or from the forest to the trees to the forest again).
Free-write (airplane view of the forest) Purpose: To get the words flowing on a new topic or on a project that I am still trying to structure. Process: I write as fast as I can, marking spots that need sources or additional facts with bold type, focusing on the macro level of the chapter. Rule for this session: Write now, edit later! No worrying about word choice, sources, or details! Works well for: New projects or sections of a project, especially ones that feel difficult. Free-writing gets me over the hill of beginning. Ideal Space: Outside so I can’t really see my computer screen.
Structure Session (forest) Purpose: To transform my outline (or freewrite) into a structured chapter or manuscript. Process: Take the freewrite or start from scratch and work on building your chapter or manuscript, adding in topic sentences and outlining paragraphs, adding shape to your manuscript. Use bold type or another system for points that you will fill in later (i.e. ADD SOURCES or ELABORATE). Rule for this session: Avoid external research or fretting too much about a word or sentence. Works well for: Fully laying out a chapter to help you know what additional sources/research/books etc. you might need. Ideal Space: Anywhere you can see the screen.
Fix the Bolds Session (among the trees) Purpose: To turn your draft into something that you can really edit. Process: Address every bold word in the chapter, filling in sources, adding information, clarifying points, and subbing in synonyms for repetitive words. Rule for this session: No skipping a bold word to get to the easy fixes! Find that source. Clarify that point! Insert the transition. Solve the problem. Do not move on to the “Big Picture” until the bolds are fixed. Works well for: Rounding out your draft and, practically speaking, interrupted or short writing sessions. Ideal Space: I prefer my dining table or the library–somewhere in which I can lay out piles of books.
Big Picture (looking at the forest) Purpose: To carefully edit your chapter or manuscript as a whole. Process: Read through your work, examining word choice, wordiness, flow, organization, clarity, use of sources, and other components that contribute to the quality of a manuscript. Fix typos, check spelling, and address stylistic issues. Rule for this session: View your manuscript as an outside reader might. Take your time. Works well for: Your last read before submission and your first read after you get the reviews back. Ideal Space: Office or coffee shop–a place that allows you to focus.
This approach works well for writing book chapters and other types of manuscripts. Using bold type allows you to keep moving early on in the process, instead of becoming stalled out on finding a source or too fixated on a particular word. It’s also easier to edit as you move through these stages, rather than trying to look at both sentence structure (micro level) and organization (macro level) at the same time. By adhering to a session type, you set up yourself for a smoother writing process, one that isn’t just measured in word count or time.
At some point, the opportunity for editing an anthology might fall in your lap. Or maybe you organize an amazing panel that could make a great text. Either way, editing a book can be a very rewarding experience. It can also feel daunting and frustrating at times. I learned a lot with each of the 3 books I’ve edited. Hopefully, my advice will help get you started on a positive path.
Is it the right time to edit a book? My checklist for editing is the same as for writing a book. Unless you are in a discipline that prioritizes books over articles and counts edited anthologies as authored books, wait until after tenure. Even then, I recommend making sure you have other projects well underway before committing to an edited manuscript. Edited books aren’t always valued much in terms of promotion. That doesn’t mean you should do one, but know how it will impact your full professor application.
Why should I edit a book? If book editing is a lot of work and may not count, why do it? For me, editing feels different from authoring a solo book. It’s a social process that straddles research and service (how it feels to me, not for promotion processes). I really enjoy working with other people to create a collective body of scholarship around an interesting topic. It can also be very satisfying to transform an excellent conference panel to something more permanent, sometimes helping early career scholars along. In other words, edit a book because the project excites you and feels like it would be personally satisfying, not because you think it will make you money (probably not), bring you fame (um, no), or be a ticket to promotion (again, check your own university’s guidelines).
Identifying the Topic I personally believe that easiest, most organic way to do an edited book is to start with a great conference panel. The panel session is an excellent outlet for shaping the topic, especially with feedback from the audience. Furthermore, assuming the panelists all contribute, you also lock in 3-5 chapters of your book.
Another approach is to identify a gap in the existing literature that would be better addressed from an array of scholars, rather than one person. Perhaps the subject extends beyond your own knowledge, you’d like to span across disciplines, or you’d like diverse perspectives about an issue. If so, create a text with a collection of experts.
Finding Contributors There are several ways to get scholars to write chapters for your book. I’ve worked with 39 contributors over my 3 projects and have used a few different approaches.
You may be planning to create a book out of an existing committee/set of conference participants/other group around a particular interest. This is a different kind of edited book then the next section addresses. Contributors will be motivated to get their chapters done because they are invested in the book’s success. With The Graduate Student Guide, the contributors were all past or current AEJMC Board of Directors who genuinely care about helping grad students. I mapped out a broad table of contents and then had board members select chapters that fit their interests (or add chapters that they felt were missing). An open call would not have made sense for this book’s intent.
Other Ways to Get Contributors
Do an open invitation for scholars to submit abstracts to be considered for your book.
Invite specific scholars to submit their work as chapters.
Build your Table of Contents from a combination of the first two (or start with panelists and then extend an open call).
I do not advise the first option for your book. if you completely start from scratch, you have little control over who will submit proposals and what topics will be addressed. Even more than that, the quality may vary significantly and you may worry that the chapters won’t be completed.
I recommend choosing the second or third option. It may be difficult to do all invited chapters (that’s a lot of people). A more practical approach is to start with a panel of people you know, invite more scholars that do work in the general area, and then do an open call. It’s less of a gamble and early in the project, you’ll be able to draft a table of contents. Plus, it’s comforting to have a few chapters that you know will get done and will get done well. At the same time, the open call may produce interesting perspectives on the topic that you hadn’t thought of or are outside of your expertise.
Working with Familiar Faces vs. Strangers
It can be a little tricky to edit the chapters of friends or colleagues. When things are going well, hands down, I will choose the friend, particularly when I am confident that the person reliably produces quality work. Some of the best chapters in my books were written by my friends (who had done research in the relevant area). It was easy and their contributions strongly enhanced the anthologies. However, if the person is routinely late or backs out, it can be an awkward and difficult experience.
When you don’t know the contributor, it’s more of a wild card experience. Will the person drop out or just never finish? Maybe. If some of your chapters come from an open call, assume at least one person will back out. Always build in time and a back-up plan for dropped chapters (more on that later). However, it can also be easier to edit a stranger’s work since you have no prior personal connection that may interfere with your feedback. You should still be positive and constructive, but it feels different. Of course, you’ll get to know your contributors through editing the book, meaning they aren’t strangers anymore.
The Call for Proposals (CFP)
After you’ve done your conference panel, confirming panelists as contributors, and solicited chapters from other scholars you know, you may need additional chapters to round out your book. Create a Call for Proposals (CFP), which should include a general description of the book, relevant bodies of theory, sample subtopics, instructions for submission (including the deadline), and your contact information. Here’s the CFP I used for the prison book.
I suggest requesting a 300-500 word abstract and not a chapter. It’s not a big commitment for scholars to write abstracts, the turnaround deadline from the CFP release can be fairly quick, and they will give you a good idea of the quality of the writing.
Once you have your submissions and the deadline has closed, determine which abstracts fit the scope, purpose, intended audience, and theoretical frameworks of the book. Start to draft the table of contents, figuring out what fits and what doesn’t. Also note the quality of the writing in the submission. If the abstract is poorly written, the chapter will likely be poorly written. Don’t be afraid to omit submissions early on. It’s much less painful than having to cut full chapters because they are indecipherable.
As you notify potential contributors of their acceptances (and also those you can’t accept), ask if any of them have their chapters ready. It’s helpful to have 1-2 chapters to use as samples.
With the ToC outlined and the contributors confirmed, you can start querying editors. It’s the same process as with solo-authored work, except that you are highlighting the expertise of a groups of people.
Setting Up the Project for Success
I will address the editing process in a future post. But I do have some tips in getting started:
Identify a clear vision for your book and stick to it. You want it to be cohesive collection.
Have a system for organizing contributions. I use an Excel sheet to keep track of the contributor, contact info, chapter status, and my last date of communication.
Remember that you are the leader of this project. It is your job to edit. Don’t hesitate to do your job. Be proactive in reminding people of deadlines. Communicate changes that need to be made. Take charge and don’t doubt your abilities. At the same time, be helpful, friendly, and understanding. You want others to want to work with you.
Very few scholars are able to just take their dissertation manuscripts and submit them as books. (I definitely couldn’t). Most theses and dissertations are not fully set up as books. Adding to that, your graduate work may not quite be up to par for what a press wants and needs. Don’t be discouraged, though. I’ll walk you through the process so that when you are ready, you’ll know what to do.
Career-wise, when should I transform my diss. into a book? Are you in a discipline that requires books, not articles, for tenure? Yes.Start right away. Identify a mentor or two to guide you in this process. No.The general advice given is to publish several articles from your dissertation and then seek a book contract when you are closer to tenure.
Has an acquisitions editor approached you about publishing your diss.? This is not common. It does happen, however. If you are in a discipline that typically expects articles first, seek advice from your chair and a mentor on whether it would be best to wait or to embrace the opportunity.
How do academic books and dissertations differ?
Obviously there are similarities. Both use primary research, include plenty of endnotes, and aim for an audience of scholars. However, they are not interchangeable.
You wrote your dissertation to prove to your committee that you were worthy of the Ph.D. Your book is not this same demonstration, but needs to have its own purpose, independent of you as the writer.
Dissertations contain lengthy theory and method chapters. Books typically incorporate these components into the introduction.
Dissertations thoroughly explicate every concept. With books, you define terms, but don’t allow the definition to distract from the purpose.
Dissertations may be much longer than their book versions. Books need to be succinct, with a clear purpose for each paragraph and chapter (other than to satisfy a committee member).
I’m ready to turn my diss. into a book. How do I get started? Unless you’ve been told otherwise, assume that your dissertation is not book-ready. So what should you do? You’ve spent years pouring yourself into this masterpiece, your pride and joy, a sliver of your soul that earned you the title of “Dr.”
It is time to break up with your dissertation.
What I mean is that you need to rethink what this manuscript is as you shift from a student looking for faculty approval to an author working on a book. This isn’t your dissertation anymore. It is a first draft, one that will be edited, revised, cut, expanded, reorganized etc. before the manuscript will be ready for submission.
Begin by reading through the dissertation on the computer (or a printed copy). Don’t look at the fancy bound book. Again, think manuscript. As you go through your work with fresh eyes, jot down notes to yourself. What works well? What could be cut? Added? I remember feeling so nervous with the first edit, like I was undoing the recommendations of my wonderful advisers (who were very helpful in the book-writing process). Fortunately, revising became easier the more that I changed.
Identify what needs to be changed in your dissertation. Are there statements that have become outdated? For me, the Affordable Care Act was passed in the time between my 2008 dissertation and its book version in 2013, greatly changing what I wrote about universal healthcare. If you have a similar time lapse, you’ll also likely find that you’re a better writer 5 years later.
Create a new Table of Contents for your proposed book. It will likely look different from your dissertation’s ToC. Unless your book focuses on developing a new theory or method, weave these elements into the introduction. Don’t include separate chapters on them.
Special Considerations for Getting the Book Contract
I wrote here about how to get a book contract. With your dissertation-turned-book, the process is just a little different. You have the manuscript almost ready to go, therefore, your estimated completion date can be much sooner. You’re still going to revise, of course, but it probably won’t take as long as writing a full manuscript from scratch.
One word of caution: write a new pitch for your book manuscript. Don’t use an excerpt of your dissertation abstract or a snippet from your dissertation elevator pitch that used to get your tenure-track job. Acquisition editors aren’t looking to see if you, Dr. _________, are capable of future scholarship. They care about your book. Period. Does it fit with their existing series? Is the topic intriguing? Aptly justified? Appealing to readers? Be professional in your correspondence, in which you will provide a clear and concise statement of purpose, identifying the scope and audience for your proposed book.
Embracing your new “love.”
As you edit and revise your dissertation into a book manuscript, it will start to feel differently than writing in your grad school days. You are not giving up on what you held dear, but moving forward in the development of yourself as an independent author. I strongly recommend having mentors. Yet keep in mind that this relationship is different than the advisor-advisee one. Ultimately, this is your work and the first step toward your next book.
Let’s start by acknowledging that I am talking in generalizations, things can happen to slow down the process, and every press is a little different. That said, this post focuses on the timeline to get the completed manuscript submitted, not the timeline for publication.
Factors to Consider
How much of the research will you have to conduct as you are writing? If your book requires months or years of research before you get to the writing stage, you’ll obviously need to build in that time. Some authors prefer to do all of the primary research first and then start writing the manuscript. Others switch off by chapter. Your approach will depend on the type of research, external considerations (i.e. travel to an archive), and your own preferences. I generally prefer to work chapter by chapter, but have had to be flexible based on archive trips. For me, it is easier to live and breathe a particular time period and topic than to jump around. Always take detailed notes and keep your materials organized so it is easy to access them even when you’ve been away for a bit.
What other work and personal obligations will you have? Build in extra time if you have a life-changing event coming up, lengthy trip, or other time-consuming work/home project. Note: you will always feel like there’s never enough time until writing becomes your priority.
Are you a quick writer? Are you used to writing every day? How much time do you need to edit your work? Writing a book will help you become more efficient. If you are not already doing so, start blocking off part of each day to write and set detailed goals for your self. Consider joining the “Any Good Thing Challenge” for extra motivation. To write a book, you need to write consistently and productively, routinely making your daily, weekly, and monthly objectives. It’s the only way to write a book.
Have you written book chapters before? I ask because the style differs from writing peer-reviewed journal articles or popular works. If you are already accustomed to writing chapters, creating your own manuscript will probably be a little easier. I will post about writing book chapters in a later blog entry.
Estimating the Length of Your Book
How do you go about estimating the length of your proposed book? Different presses have preferred word count rages–the longer the book, the more expensive it is to produce. To give you an idea of the word count vs. finished product, here are the approximate counts/pages of my books:
85,000 words = 152 pages in Microsoft Word= 263 pages in the proofs 56,741 words = 176 pages in (edited) book 81,118 words= 148 pages in Microsoft Word= 286 pages in book 133,169 words = 352 pages in (edited) book 108,424 words = 316 pages in (edited) book 48,000 words = 120 pages in book
I won’t get into how long your book needs to be, except to advise you to be mindful of the length. If you are estimating more than 250-300 pages and this isn’t a sought-after, advanced contract for a senior scholar situation, consider saving some of the content for a second book later on.
Start with your proposed Table of Contents (ToC). For single-authored books, I usually estimate about 6-8,000 words for the introduction and conclusion and then 8-10,000 per regular chapter. With this formula, a book with 8 chapters would be approximately 80-85,000 words and a 10 chapter book would be about 96,000-100,000 words (I rounded up the range). Figures, tables, images, references, appendices, and other extra features will also impact the page length.
Does your estimated word count range work with the press guidelines? If it’s not specified, look at the typical length of books that the press has recently published in your area. For my epidemics book, my press (University of Massachusetts) requested a maximum of 85,000 words. I omitted several chapters from the original ToC to make this word count. You can always expand your work to fit the word count or cut your material down later. However, your completed manuscript needs to match your book contract. Do not produce a manuscript that is significantly under or over the number listed in the contract.
Contract Question: Manuscript in Hand or to be Completed?
Some people prefer to seek a contract with only sample chapters. Others like to complete the manuscript and then find a publisher. There are pros and cons to both approaches. If you get a contract with much of the work ahead, you can shape the manuscript to the press guidelines and consult with the editor on the content and scope of the project. Yet, it may be more difficult to get the contract and you may run into issues if you can’t finish on time. On the flip side, it may be easier to get a contract with a manuscript in hand. This might make sense if you are turning your dissertation into your first book. If you are starting from scratch, though, I don’t recommend waiting to write a full manuscript before getting the contract. It is helpful to work with an editor as you are writing your book and it’s also motivating to have a deadline. Plus the contract can (positively) factor into hiring and promotion decisions.
So how long do you need?
Going forward, I’m assuming you do not have a completed manuscript as you query editors. Save deciding on the estimated completion date for the last step of the proposal. You should write the sample chapters, query editors with emails, and apply for grants (if applicable) first. Once an editor requests a proposal, then you think about the date — after you’ve written the other parts of the proposal. Why wait? Because writing sample chapters and querying is time-consuming. Going through this process will also help you clarify the scope of your project.
Estimating your timeline in your book proposal is a tricky deal. On one hand, you want to be fairly realistic in your approximation. Don’t list 6 months from now as the completion date if you really mean 2 years. On the other, if you list a date that is too far away (and this is your first book), you likely won’t get the contract. If you honestly don’t think you can finish and submit a manuscript within the next year, I recommend writing more of the book before you seek a contract.
Setting (and Making) Your Own Deadlines
I’m a big fan of using an Excel sheet for all of my books, noting the chapter #, tentative title (or topic), deadline for my self, status, and word count (once it’s finished). Like this:
Once you’ve laid out your chapters and identified the general word count, determine the order for writing your book. Do you want to work chronologically? Are there resources you need to request that will take time? Do you have research trips planned? Are some chapters going to be easier to write than others? What chapters currently exist as peer-review articles and just need revision? (Get permission NOW for the reprint).
I can’t advise on how long conducting your primary research will take. Nor will I delve into the particulars of writing a book chapter (maybe in a later post). What I will say is that you need to a). WRITE everyday (not just listing literature or taking notes from your microfilm. Actual writing that will lead to a chapter, which will lead to a draft). and b). Make every deadline that you set.
Break it down. If you have a 8-10,000 word chapter to write, with the primary research completed and organized, you should be able to produce a chapter draft in a month. 8,000 words/30 days is only 267 words per day. Or, if you’d like 2 days off per week (following the Any Good Thing Challenge), is only 364 words per day (but write at least 400 for the challenge). Set a word count goal per day, plus other assigned tasks (editing, finding sources, reviewing literature, etc.). It’s not really a secret. The best way to get writing done is to write. See my tips here. In other words, have your big deadline (one week before your manuscript submission date), individual chapter deadlines, and then micro-deadlines for each chapter. Give 5-7 days between each chapter deadline to allow for additional edits, elaboration, etc.
Remember that this is only the first draft. You want to produce quality work, yes, but you also need to finish your manuscript. A draft is the beginning and can be revised. An empty Word doc cannot. Don’t become so worried about the final product that it halts your writing. The more that you write, the more that you will learn about your project and gain confidence in creating the manuscript.
What if you don’t make your deadline?
Don’t allow one missed deadline to sabotage your project. If life truly gets in the way, then you’ll need to do extra to get back on track. Reevaluate your daily goals for just that chapter so that you can catch up before you miss the next deadline.
If you come to a point in which you do need to ask for an extension, be upfront and polite in asking your editor about pushing back the deadline. Only ask once though. Presses have deadlines too and your project is part of their production schedule.
The Timeline Beyond the Timeline
As I will cover in a future post, completing your manuscript is really just the first (HUGE) step toward a finished product. When you submit your manuscript, definitely celebrate the accomplishment! Know that it’s only the beginning of revisions, proofs, cover design and other steps. Then again, you’ve come this far so you can get the rest done!
A colleague recently asked me this question, prompting my post. I’m assuming you have an idea and that you are a good person to do the project you have in mind.
Have you conducted research in this area before? It would be difficult to write a book on something completely out of your area. If you are breaking into a new sub-discipline, you may want to start with conference papers and journal articles to get a handle on the literature, method, terminology, and other aspects.
Have you published on this topic? If so, do you plan to use published articles as chapters in your book? It’s great to begin a project with a few chapters semi-completed. You will need to get permission for the reprint. Do note that most presses want mostly original content. I recommend not having more than 3-4 chapters based on articles. Exceptions exist, of course.
Is this the right time for you to write a book? As I wrote in my “Book Contract” post, unless you are in a field that requires books, I advise waiting until after tenure to seriously focus on such a time-consuming endeavor.
Did a meeting with an acquisitions editor prompt you to think about writing a book? If so, really consider (as in #3) if this is the right time for you and the right press. Know that you don’t have to go with that particular press unless you’ve signed a contract.
More Prep Work
Before you are ready to completely plunge in, spend time doing your pre-research research for the book. Look over related books, noting style, archives used (if applicable), existing literature, and presses that published on similar topics. Identify people that may be helpful to your project and speak with them. I also recommend seeking a book-writing mentor: someone who has successfully written books before and is willing to offer guidance.
Throughout this time, take plenty of notes, including lists of literature to consult and ideas about your book as they come.
Planning Out Your Book
This is my favorite stage. In fact, I think I write books because I enjoy planning them out so much. Before you approach a press, you need to have a clear idea of what your book will cover and accomplish. Figure out the answers to the following questions. My answers for my epidemics book are in red.
What is the conceptual question that drives your book? “How have media products constructed epidemics, both in the moment and in collective memory?”
What will its purpose be? “To study all media content available during a particular epidemic, as well as depictions of a disease in contemporary media.”
What will your book accomplish that others haven’t? (In other words, how will your book fit the gap in the literature)? Existing books either focused on a media coverage during one particular epidemic or broadly addressed epidemics without giving much attention to media. My book, then, was the first to examine media various roles across epidemics.
What are the parameters for the book? What will be included? What won’t be? I took a case-study approach and selected 7 epidemics in American history that were significant for different reasons. Each had a local focus. I did not include international coverage or epidemics outside of the seven selected.
Next, sketch out a Table of Contents for the chapters. Don’t worry about chapter titles, just the topic. Consider how broad you would like to be and what resources you would need to successfully write this book.
On the Timeline
How much time do you realistically need? Book manuscripts can be very time-consuming to write. And it’s not just about writing the book. Conducting the primary research can take months or years, as you take pages and pages of notes. I will do a separate post on breaking down the timeline. In general, though, after the primary research is done, I would allow at least a month per chapter, plus two months for editing/additional work.
What needs to get done before seeking a press
If an acquisitions editor has approached you, great! Skip the next few lines (but know that you’ll have to complete these steps anyway). Assuming you don’t have a specific press, don’t seek a contract until you have sketched out answers to the above questions and written at least one sample chapter. Although book proposals differ by press, they all contain variations of the planning questions that I listed. Don’t waste your time on a proposal yet. Instead, spend time crafting a quality sample chapter or two. I recommend writing the introductory chapter and one chapter that demonstrates the style and content of the bulk of the book. Have 1-2 friends give you feedback on your materials.
Once you have your scope, purpose, parameters, ToC, and 1-2 sample chapters, then you can move to the “book contract stage.” I’ve outlined it here.
Writing a book is a stressful, all-encompassing journey, but it’s also really fulfilling. There is nothing like the first time you see your manuscript published as a real book.
Before we proceed, complete the following checklist:
I certify that I
have tenure and/or in a field that requires books
am a self-driven person who meets deadlines
realize that my work is imperfect and will need revisions
may not have a ton of control over some of the book’s aspects
likely will not yield enough profit from this book to take a vacation or retire
can wait 2-3 years to see the finished product
Okay, now that you’ve passed the test, we can continue onto the content. How do you get a book contract for an academic book? I’m assuming you already have a great idea and some of the manuscript written. You don’t need to have the whole book done, but write at least two sample chapters. You also need to understand the scope and target audience before you start seeking a publisher. How to write a book will need to be a separate post.
Do your research, part 1. Talk to your mentor, friends, and other authors about their books. You can ask to see sample query letters and proposals. Find out which presses they used and if they had positive experiences.
Do your research, part 2. Study presses that produce series or individual books related to your subject area. Think about the best fit for your book, as well as the ranking of the press. On each of the websites for the presses, look at submission guidelines and elements to include. I like to make a spreadsheet of potential presses, with contact information. At the same time, determine which presses NOT to submit your work. A publisher that only produces poetry is not going to start churning out books on 19th century carpentry just because you submit a proposal.
Send a query email to the appropriate editor. Do not send a proposal without an editor requesting it first (unless the press website specifically says to do so). It is a waste of your time and theirs. Instead, create a query letter/email that states who you are, the tentative title, an abstract, why you think it would make a good fit and your proposed timeline. Identify the acquisitions editor at each press and address the email to that person. This is your first interaction with this press so keep it formal, confident and humble. You may send query emails to multiple presses at the same time. Three things may happen:
You never hear a response. It’s frustrating, but it’s life. Move on.
You get a quick “thanks, but no thanks.” Do not take it personally. For all you know, the editor may have just signed a contract on a similar topic.
An editor expresses interest and asks for a proposal [this is the response you want].
Prepare your materials. Before you send queries or as you await responses, start writing a sample proposal. Each press has its own format/questions/section areas (which is why you wait to send proposals upon request). That said, for every prospective book, you’ll need to figure out the following components:
A tentative title
The scope of the project
The audience(s) for your book
A tentative Table of Contents and chapter summaries
Possible courses for the book to be used as a text
3-4 potential reviewers
A proposed timeline for completion. BE REALISTIC. If you are more than 1.5-2 years out, wait to send the query and work on the book. (Some presses do grant advanced contracts to established authors).
1-2 sample chapters. I always include the first chapter.
Send in only the requested materials. DO NOT ADD ANYTHING ELSE.
Wait patiently. Different presses have different processes/hierarchies for publication.
Read the editor’s response (see above) and make your next move. If it’s a “no thanks,” query more presses. If you are given a contract, hooray! Contract negotiation is beyond the scope of this post, but read it carefully, ask questions, and have your mentor or another author also read it and give you advice.
Good luck! This is just the beginning—kind of like locating a hiking trail, parking your car next to it, and lacing up your boots before you head down the path.
How do you become a productive writer? How do you finish a thesis/book/journal article/poem/other piece of writing?
Over the years, I’ve pondered these questions and employed various strategies to effectively start and finish! different writing projects. I don’t have just one answer and I fully realize that writing is very personal. What works for me may not work for you. That said, I’ve read the popular guides on effective writing and have participated in writing partnerships, groups, and retreats so I will offer some advice.
Tips for Writing Success
1. You can’t write well if you don’t feel well. Establish healthy routines in other aspects of your life. Even if you are in thesis/dissertation mode, you should still be sleeping, eating, and exercising regularly.
2. You don’t need a lot of time to write. Aim small. It’s better to have 1-2 hours of quality writing than 4 hours in which you just stare into space and pretend to write. I have two kids and can be really busy. I write in short time blocks all the time.
3. Have a strategy to help you focus. Like everyone else, I sometimes struggle with motivation. Creating a clear goal helps me get back on track. There are many different approaches (I’ve tried them all). You can set a timer for 30 minutes (write, 5 minute break, repeat), aim for a word count, or use other means to get yourself to turn off social media and get the job done. Some people like to establish section objectives for themselves, such as writing a specific paragraph before they do other tasks. Whatever works for you–just stick to it.
4. Don’t hesitate to work in unusual places. I try to utilize my time, which often means I take out my laptop and write. I have worked at the Toyota dealership, karate school, the ham store, a doctor’s office, and other odd work spaces. Make the most of small windows of time.
5.Recognize that writing is a process. You will rarely write the perfect draft the first time around. Write, revise, write, revise. Getting some words down is the first step to a finished manuscript.
6.Write in stages. Depending on my mood, primary research conducted, and state of the current draft, I focus on different levels of writing, so to speak. Sometimes I write from a macro perspective, outlining my draft, or do free-flowing brainstorming to get started, bolding parts of my manuscript that can be filled in later. Other times I work on the nitty-gritty details, adding sources and smoothing out word choices and transitions. My point is that writing doesn’t have to be linear. You need a clear outline and a plan, but you can switch between the big picture and the building blocks (or as my adviser used to say, between the “forest” and the “trees”).
7.Never stop writing. The more you write, the better you become at writing. Have a plan for your upcoming work. If you are writing your thesis, you should know what your next objectives/chapters. As my other amazing adviser once told me, tenure-track folks should aim to have projects at each stage of the writing process. This might seem like a lot. However, if you have a solid plan and you get moving, it is very doable. Stages of Writing Peer-reviewed Journal Articles
2. Conducting research/writing the manuscript
[Presenting paper at conference]
3. Revise & resubmit/under review at a journal
8. Always meet your deadlines. I’m ending these tips with the big one. Be honest with yourself and prioritize writing to meet your deadlines. There will always be demands on your time. Recognize this and work writing into meeting your other obligations. Effective writing behavior combined with adherence to deadlines are the keys to finishing your manuscripts.
There you have it. I don’t have a magic potion for writing, nor am I a perfect writer. I choose projects that I find interesting and worthwhile, set deadlines for myself, and almost always meet those deadlines. Good luck!